One of the hot spots in China in 2020 is to accelerate the deployment of 5G networks and expand 5G applications. According to public data from the government, more than 10,000 5G base stations will be added in China every week. This shows that 2020 will be the explosive first year of China's 5G base station construction, and 5G will also enter a new era of development.
What is 1G~5G network?
1G network is the first generation of mobile communication technology that first appeared in 1983. It uses analog voice signals to send and receive, and the call quality is not good. Each region has its own common standards, such as TACS in the United Kingdom, AMPS in the United States, RTMI in Italy, etc., leading to widespread failure.
2G network is the second generation of mobile communication technology using digital signals. It has SMS and fax functions on the basis of 1G, and the call quality is also better than 1G. During this period, there are already mobile phones, but only a simple call function.
3G third-generation communication technology can process images, music and videos, provide Web browsing, teleconferencing and e-commerce information services. It also has the global standard IMT-2000. It also defines China's W-CDMA, CDMA2000 and TD-SCDMA communication standards.
The 4G fourth-generation communication technology integrates 3G and WLAN, and can transmit high-quality video images.
5G refers to the "fifth generation", that is, the fifth generation mobile communication system or the fifth generation mobile network technology, which is the expansion and upgrade of 4G technology.
Some people have summarized these generations of mobile communication technologies: 2G opened the text era, 3G opened the image era, 4G opened the video era, and 5G is about to start the era of Internet of Everything. 5G has three main characteristics: "High rate, low latency and large capacity".
High speed is the most intuitive user experience. The 5G network speed has been greatly improved, reaching a maximum of 10Gbit/s, and the theoretical transmission speed is one hundred times faster than the previous 4G LTE cellular network.
The simplest understanding of low latency is that when you enter a URL in a web browser, you must wait for two time delays to complete the process of opening a web page. Confirmation time requested by the user; and the time required to send text, images, and video to the user. This is the network delay.
5G technology can effectively reduce the delay and increase the data transmission rate. The response time can be reduced from the average 50ms (0.05s) of 4G to 1-2 milliseconds (0.001-0.002s). Similarly, the data transmission speed can be increased from 0.02-0.03Gbps to 0.1-5.0Gbps, which means that we can load the entire webpage in 1 second.
Low latency will provide reliable and extremely low latency for applications with high real-time performance, such as games, video, live broadcasting, Internet of Vehicles and industrial control, thus creating countless possibilities.
Existing 4G base stations have only a dozen antennas, but 5G base stations can support hundreds of antennas. These antennas can form a large-scale antenna array through Massive MIMO technology, which means that the base station can simultaneously transmit and receive signals from more users. As a result, the capacity of the mobile network has increased tens of times or more. The large-capacity features of 5G will play a greater role in the Internet of Things, smart homes, smart cities, and real-time logistics tracking.
Micro base station
In the 2G era, the signal of one large signal tower can covers a small town. In the 3G/4G era, a large number of small base stations need to be deployed. In densely populated areas, more than ten small base stations need to be deployed every 100 meters. In the 5G era, the use of millimeter waves has increased bandwidth. The number of users is 100 times that of 4G and the network speed is 100 times that of 4G. This means that only a few large base stations need to be established, but small base stations are widely distributed. This is the micro base station of 5G network.
4G uses lower frequency bands, and one large base station can covers 2 to 40 kilometers. As the communication technology is deployed to the high frequency band of 5G, the diffraction ability of electromagnetic waves becomes weak, and the transmission distance and coverage are relatively small. Therefore, 5G must use multiple micro base stations to cover the same base station area.
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